Comparative Analysis of the Phytochemical and Antimicrobial effects of the Extracts of some Local Herbs on Selected Pathogenic Organisms

Chioma Chiemezie Okore

Abstract


This study principally focused on three medicinal plants (Vernonia amygdalina, Gongronema latifolium and Ocimum basilicum) for their  phytochemical and antimicrobial qualities against some microorganisms. The samples were collected locally from Nekede in Owerri West Local Government Area of Imo State and analyzed using standard microbiological procedures. The phytochemical compositions were evaluated using direct chemical composition and thin layer chromatography. The result showed that the leaf extracts of Vernonia amygdalina, Gongronema latifolium and Ocimum basilicum possess the phytochemicals: tannins, saponins, alkaloids, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides, cynogenic glycosides. The active components of the leaf samples were extracted using solvent extraction technique. The solvents used are acetone and ethanol. The method described by Akerele et al., {2008}) was used to extract the bioactive components from the powdered samples. The methods of Akerele et al.,(2008} was slightly modified. The modification was based on Doughari and Manzara {2008}. The antimicrobial efficacies of the extracts were tested against Klebsiella  pnuemonea, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, using disc diffusion method. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration of each was also ascertained. The result showed that acetone and ethanol extracts of Vernonia  amygdalina had highest zones of inhibition on Klebsiella  pnuemonea, Pseudomonas aeruginosa was intermediate. E .coli and Staph aureus were resistant to the low concentrations used. Acetone and ethanolic extracts of Ocimum basilicum had highest inhibition on Pseudomonas aeruginosa, intermediate on Klebsiella  pnuemonea and Staphylococcus aureus and with highest on E.coli. Acetone and ethanolic extracts of Gongronema latifolium showed that Klebsiella  pnuemonea, E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus were sensitive to it but Pseudomonas aeruginosa was intermediate to it. Therefore the study suggests the possible exploration of these plants as sources of natural product for future use in the management of multi-drug resistant pathogens such as E. coli, Klebsiella  pnuemonea, Staphylococcus aureus  and P. aeruginosa that cause wide range of infections.

Key words: phytochemicals, antimicrobial; Vernonia amygdalina; Gongronema latifolium; Ocimum basilicum;          

     pathogenic organisms.


Keywords


phytochemicals, antimicrobial; Vernonia amygdalina; Gongronema latifolium; Ocimum basilicum; pathogenic organisms.

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References


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